Energy NPS Series, Part 2: EN-1 - Pager Power
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Energy NPS Series, Part 2: EN-1

Energy NPS Series, Part 2: EN-1
April 8, 2024 Michael Sutton

The first National Policy Statement (NPS) covered in this series is naturally the Overarching National Policy Statement for Energy (EN-1). In this article, we will provide a general overview of EN-1 and outline the civil and military aviation and defence interests we consider when assessing Nationally Significant Infrastructure Projects (NSIPs).

If you haven’t read part 1 of this series, which outlines the role of the NPS, you can find it here.

EN-1 Overview

EN-1 is split into four main sections, which are outlined below:

  • Government policy on energy and energy infrastructure development – This section sets out the relevant government policies that allow for the development of NSIPs in order to meet decarbonisation targets, meet the UK’s energy needs, and ensure cheaper and reliable energy.
  • The need for new nationally significant infrastructure projects – This section explains the importance of new NSIPs to meet the meet the energy objectives outlined in the previous section, and why the government considers that the need for such infrastructure is urgent.
  • Assessment principles – This section details the general policies for the submission and assessment of applications relating to energy infrastructure. It is the most informative section of the entire NPS for a developer in understanding the application process and what the Secretary of State is looking for when making their decision.
  • Generic Impacts – This section provides an overview of some generic impacts that most frequently arise from NSIPs and potential ways these impacts can be mitigated. It is important to note that the section is not intended to provide a list of all possible effects or ways to mitigate such effects. 

Civil and Military Aviation and Defence Interests

The general impacts listed in EN-1 that are relevant to Pager Power are those associated with civil and military aviation and defence interests – see Section 5.5. Though the section mainly focuses on the impacts from wind turbines, solar farms and other NSIP types can also affect civil and military assets.

The two main mechanisms in which wind turbines can impact aviation infrastructure are by posing as a physical obstruction and interfering with radio infrastructure. Of all the impacts named in EN-1, we have separated them into the two different mechanisms as detailed in the table below.

Aviation and defence impacts mentioned in EN-1

The impacts listed above are not exhaustive and each project has unique challenges depending on its location and scale. In order to understand the specific issues of each site, stakeholder consultation is a vital step. EN-1 states that the applicant should consult the Ministry of Defence, Met Office, Civil Aviation Authority, NATS and any aerodrome – licensed or otherwise – likely to be affected by the proposed development.

Finally, the section promotes collaboration and co-existence between aviation, defence and energy industry stakeholders to ensure scenarios such that neither is unduly compromised. Pager Power strongly agrees with this and aims to provide solutions that work for both aviation stakeholders and developers.

About Pager Power

Pager Power has experience assisting developers of NSIPs by undertaking technical assessments through to providing expert evidence at hearings. 

If any of your NSIP or other projects are facing glint and glare, aviation safety, telecommunication, or shadow flicker constraints, please get in touch.


Image accreditation: Sander Weeteling (March 2021) on Last accessed on 8th April 2024. Available at:


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